The firing temperature needs to be high and so is expensive to produce.
The first firm to develop a reliable recipe was Spode in 1799. Germany, France and the rest of Europe stuck to their older, more traditional Chinese porcelain recipes (no animal bone).
GDR is German Democratic Republic Gladding, Mc Bean and Co.; Glendale and Los Angeles, CA.; 1875 - 1984.
From sewer pipes they branched out into, hollow tile (1890), face brick for building (1891), roof tile (1893) enamel brick (1899), vitrified brick (1902) and coated brick (1915). Gladding, Mc Bean terra cotta products were known worldwide.
The exception is the 'Sunburst' Gloria Lustre mark.Since one of the company’s goals was to produce Japan’s finest china, Noritake needed to be close to the best source materials available.It didn't take long for the company to achieve its initial goal—by 1910 it could claim Emperor Taisho among its customers.You will find the GDA mark with many other porcelain manufacturer marks. This company was originally started to make sewer pipes, the 3 men were drawn to California by the discovery of fire clay deposits in the town of Lincoln. Charles Gladding, Peter Mc Gill Mc Bean and George Chambers (all of Chicago).